MemberSeptember 25, 2021 at 2:28 pm
To track all these planetary orbits and collisions, and ultimately their mergers, the team used machine learning to obtain predictive models from 3D simulations of giant impacts. The team then used these data to rapidly compute the orbital evolution, including hit-and-run and merging collisions, to simulate terrestrial planet formation over the course of 100 million years. In the second paper, the authors propose and demonstrate their hit-and-run-return scenario for the moon’s formation, recognizing the primary problems with the standard giant impact model.
“The standard model for the moon requires a very slow collision, relatively speaking,” Asphaug said, “and it creates a moon that is composed mostly of the impacting planet, not the proto-Earth, which is a major problem since the moon has an isotopic chemistry almost identical to Earth.”
In the team’s new scenario, a roughly Mars-sized protoplanet hits the Earth, as in the standard model, but is a bit faster so it keeps going. It returns in about 1 million years for a giant impact that looks a lot like the standard model.
“The double impact mixes things up much more than a single event,” Asphaug said, “which could explain the isotopic similarity of Earth and moon, and also how the second, slow, merging collision would have happened in the first place.”
The researchers think the resulting asymmetry in how the planets were put together points the way to future studies addressing the diversity of terrestrial planets. For example, we don’t understand how Earth ended up with a magnetic field that is much stronger than that of Venus, or why Venus has no moon.
Their research indicates systematic differences in dynamics and composition, according to Asphaug.
“In our view, Earth would have accreted most of its material from collisions that were head-on hits, or else slower than those experienced by Venus,” he said. “Collisions into the Earth that were more oblique and higher velocity would have preferentially ended up on Venus.”
MemberSeptember 25, 2021 at 4:22 pm
So it is fine that moon has isotope like earth because it was previously part of Earth.